Farming practice threat
In last few decades with the advancement in agricultural farming practices such as use of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, animal manure and other agro-chemicals we are able to achieve higher agricultural production but currently also facing a big problem of agricultural land and water contamination. Also excessive use of chemicals resulted in desertification, seepage and loss of fertile layer.
Nowadays, agricultural land and water contamination not only limiting agricultural production but residues of variety of pesticides and chemicals left has also threaten public health as well.
Agricultural land contamination
Upon mixing of pesticides with water pesticide leaching occurs and pesticides move through soil resulting in accumulation of pesticides in soil and contamination of groundwater.
Soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons affects soil health by harming soil microorganisms, reducing their number and activity. Ultimately affecting plants health by reducing the availability of nutrients to plants. At a worse scenario at a higher level of contamination seeds can not germinate and in few instances, mature plants can not grow anymore.
Soil polluted with heavy metals shows a reduction in growth, performance, and yield.
Metals cannot be broken down, at a higher concentration than optimal in plants metals adversely affect the plant both directly and indirectly for instance inhibition of cytoplasmic enzymes and damage to cell structures due to oxidative stress and alteration in activities of soil microorganisms as a result decrease in organic matter decomposition.
Such toxic effects (both direct and indirect) lead to a decline in plant growth which sometimes results in the death of the plant.
Accumulation of soil acidity by excessive use of fertilizers raising the aluminum level in the soil and soil becomes toxic.
Soil bacteria can convert excessive nitrogen fertilizers to greenhouse gas nitrogen oxide which may cause acid rain.